Andrew Knox
Andrew Knox

Service Record

1942-1945 • Enlisted • Army Air Forces/Corps • 98th Bomb Group, 13th Air Force • Italy • First Lieutenant

Transcript

Thomas J. Healy II:
He was a tail gunner in — or waist gunner in I guess — I guess he started out with the 25s and then went to the 24s over in the South Pacific. A lot of guys, you know, a lot of guys that you’d be familiar with that I’ve known through my dad and whatever —

Videographer:
Is it ___?

Thomas J. Healy II:
I have no clue.

Andrew Knox:
I wonder why they —

Thomas J. Healy II:
I don’t know, because everybody got one. I mean, you pretty much got them.

Videographer:
Oh, yeah.

Andrew Knox:
Well, Pearson’s so much anti-administration and anti-old, so that’s probably why he wasn’t willing to do it.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Oh, but he’s — Oh, no. He’s going into pod force and everything else. I mean, he loves the project.

Andrew Knox:
Oh, he has?

Thomas J. Healy II:
Oh, yeah. He likes the project.

Videographer:
Okay. Bye-bye.

Thomas J. Healy II:
But, I mean, there’s a lot of guys, a lot of guys that I knew even, I mean, through my dad that was — that were — weren’t even on the thing. Okay. How is the sound level?

Videographer:
Good.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. Anytime you get ready there, let me know.

Videographer:
I’m ready.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. All right. Andy, start with just stating your name and then spell your last name.

Andrew Knox:
Andrew Knox, K-n-o-x.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. And when I ask you the questions, don’t just answer yes or no. Sort of repeat the question. Because you’re not going to hear me in this. They’re just going to hear you. So if I say were you there at D-Day, you go yeah, I was there; no, I wasn’t there at D-Day; or whatever.

Andrew Knox:
Okay.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Just answer it so that they’ll hear — they’ll know what you’re answering. Okay.

Andrew Knox:
Let me warn you in advance my memory ain’t what it used to be.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Oh, no, no, no. That’s fine. That’s fine. What I’m going to do is there’s going to be probably a set of three questions right now. And what I’d rather you do is just go on and talk about it a little bit. I mean, just — the first question is where did you grow up? The second question is who were your parents, and what did they do? And the third question is just did you have any siblings, brothers or sisters? So you just start telling me where you were born, you know, where you grew up.

Andrew Knox:
Oh, I was born outside of Philadelphia in Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, and I grew up there. And I lived in the Philadelphia area in Wynnewood and Rosemont when I came back from the service, did my graduate work at Penn, and then I took a job at DuPont and moved to Delaware.

Thomas J. Healy II:
And who were your parents, and what did they do?

Andrew Knox:
My father was Kara Knox, his name was, and he was the head of a major drug company. He was the — a businessman. And my mother was born in Argentina. He was on business in Argentina and met her. She was of Scotch descent and lived in that community and — in Buenos Aires.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. Brothers and sisters?

Andrew Knox:
I had two brothers, both of whom were in the Navy during World War II.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. Now, December 7th, 1941, do you remember that day?

Andrew Knox:
Oh, very well.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. So what I would like you to say is December 7th — say December 7th, 1941, and then go on with your, you know, I was doing whatever or whatever. So go ahead and say that.

Andrew Knox:
December 7th, 1941, in hindsight, was probably the biggest event in my life, except for marriage and children and things of that nature. And at the time I was at Williams College in northwest Massachusetts. I was a freshman. I had — I didn’t even know — never even heard of Pearl Harbor. I didn’t know anything about it. And I heard — And then a couple of days later, I was standing in the fraternity house. I was waiting on tables. And I heard President Roosevelt declare that we were at war.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. The day of you didn’t even know it was happening?

Andrew Knox:
No. I was studying — I didn’t know that Pearl Harbor was happening. I was studying in my room. And it was 7:00 in the evening or so that word started to get around. And some people in the college were listening to the pro football Giants were playing a football game. And it was announced there that Pearl Harbor had been bombed. And then the word got around. But the first question a lot of us asked is what’s — where is Pearl Harbor? What’s that?

Thomas J. Healy II:
A funny little thing. We were — Bill McLaughlin, Bill McLaughlin was in the stands at the old Wilmington ballpark watching the Wilmington Clippers play either Charlotte or some other team. And when they heard that they had attacked Pearl Harbor, he in his mind thought who’s Pearl Harbor, and why did they attack her?

Andrew Knox:
Pearl, yeah, right.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Pearl Harbor. And it’s actually funny that most of everybody that we’ve interviewed had the same answers. It’s like — One guy said, well, I think I knew it was maybe in Hawaii, but, you know, it’s just — they didn’t know what it was all about. So when you heard that news, what was your next step? I mean, did you stay in college? Did you want to join up? Did you — Give me that little history about after Pearl Harbor, what was it — what transpired to get you finally into the service?

Andrew Knox:
After Pearl Harbor, I stayed in college, but I wanted to fly an airplane in the service. So I joined the Army Air Corps, which would give you deferments. But they only gave you the deferment — I was ready to go. And people have asked me, and particularly young people involved in the Vietnam War, said, well, gee, why did you ever enlist in World War II? And I said because my president asked me to. And their eyes kind of rolled, and they don’t quite understand why somebody would have that kind of a reaction.

Thomas J. Healy II:
So how long after — So you stayed in school?

Andrew Knox:
Yeah. I stayed in school approximately a year. They had told me that I was going to be deferred until I finished college. But they called me up earlier than that. And I was in school approximately a year after Pearl Harbor. But I had signed up to — I had enlisted in the Army Air Corps.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. When that happened, where did you go, how did you, you know, the process you —

Andrew Knox:
Well, first I went to Atlantic City for basic training. And then as an aviation cadet I went to Saint Anselm’s College in New Hampshire for a couple of months for training. They didn’t have any room for us, but there was a lot of pressure to call these college boys up, and other people were not getting called. And then I started out in my training as an aviation cadet. And I went to Nashville, Tennessee, for classification. I was classified to be a pilot. And then I went on to flying training, primary flying training, in Lakeland, Florida, and then basic flying in Courtland, Alabama, and advanced flying where I — in Seymour, Indiana, where I received my second lieutenant commission and my wings as a pilot.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. Right after flight school, then, or right after you got your wings, were you then assigned to a group? And then what happened? How did you get —

Andrew Knox:
After flight school, I was assigned to what they called B-17 transition in Columbus, Ohio. And basically that was training to become a first pilot on a B-17. And after that training, then I was assigned a crew, and we trained in Tampa, Florida, as a ten-man crew. We trained to fly formation, gunnery practice, all the — night cross country, and the things that you would do as a crew. And then after I received that training — I received very good training — I had 600 hours of flying time before I went overseas.

Thomas J. Healy II:
So did your whole crew go with you?

Andrew Knox:
Yes. The whole crew stayed with me all the way — We went over to Italy and flew from Foggia, Italy, and the crew stayed together, and we flew 23 missions together. And the reason I didn’t get to 25 was because, thank goodness, the war in Europe ended. And the plan was to send us back to the states to be trained in a B-29, which was a bigger — bigger version, really, of the B-17, made also by Boeing, and we’d go to the South Pacific. But fortunately the war in South Pacific was ended. I wasn’t afraid. At that age, you didn’t think anything was going to happen to you. But I’d put three years in in the service. I wanted to get back into my regular life, go back to college and get a job and a family, et cetera.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did — Now, when you left, you were in Tampa. That was — Was that your final sort of place —

Andrew Knox:
Yes.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. How did you — Did you fly — Did you fly overseas, or did you ferry the plane over?

Andrew Knox:
No. We flew — I went overseas in a liberty ship — our whole grew crew went overseas — which are small ships, and they had cargo. And I went in a big convoy. And it was interesting. We were headed for Italy and went through the Straits of Gibraltar. And there was debris in the water where a boat had been — a ship had been torpedoed the night before.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did — So then you landed in where? Where did you finally —

Andrew Knox:
Naples.

Thomas J. Healy II:
In Naples.

Andrew Knox:
Naples, Italy.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Then your whole squadron was there?

Andrew Knox:
All together. The whole —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Tell me the name of the squad — of the bomb group or whatever it was, the official — What was your official — the official group?

Andrew Knox:
It was the 348th Bomb Squadron of the 99th Bomb Group of the 15th Air Force. The 8th Air Force was in England, and we were in Italy and flew out of — Foggia was an ideal place for — It was not very well developed country, but it was very flat, and there were a lot of airfields built there. I flew missions where there were, I think, as many as a thousand planes in the air when we flew to Southern Germany and Austria on our bombing missions.

Thomas J. Healy II:
So what was the key mission? Was it the 25th mission is the — What was the — the crease in the hat and all that that was —

Andrew Knox:
Well, the key mission, the crease in the hat came — We were told after we got our wings to wear your flight cap in the shower so you’d look kind of like an old-timer. But the key was you had to fly 25 missions, and then you’d go home. And our crew had flown 23. And I was glad I didn’t get there, but at — If I would have completed 25 missions — As I said, I completed 23. If I’d have completed 25, I would have gotten an automatic promotion to captain and a distinguished flying cross.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Now, when you were flying, did you have any — do have any — Tell me some stories. Do you have — You have to have some stories of some of the missions and stuff.

Andrew Knox:
Yeah. There were two missions in a row where I made the decision to drain the wing tanks. The decision you had to make was that if you drained the tanks and got a hit in the tanks, with the vapor, there would have to be an explosion. And if you didn’t drain the tanks and you got a hit on it, then the gas would flow out, and you wouldn’t have that gas in order to get home. So I chose to drain the tanks. I wanted the gas in the main tanks. And two missions in a row had a shell go through the tanks. Fortunately there was no explosion, and the — The anti-aircraft shell must have been set for altitude, and we were at a different altitude than it was set for.

Thomas J. Healy II:
So all your crew came back basically safe?

Andrew Knox:
Came back, yes. No —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did you have any friends that didn’t make it, or, I mean —

Andrew Knox:
Well, I had one of my best friends out of high school, prep school, he was in the aviation cadets, and he was killed in a training accident. I had other friends from college and from high school that were in the Air Corps, and they got their wings and flew combat and were okay.

Thomas J. Healy II:
So when you — Okay. So let me — So when you were — I mean, what was the antici — Was there a lot of anticipation going over on the liberty ships like when you were got there, what you were going to see, what you were going to do?

Andrew Knox:
Well, not so much. We were — Well, anticipation, you were anxious to find out what was involved in flying combat. So that was the thing we wanted to learn.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did you have — When you got there, you were assigned your plane? How did that work?

Andrew Knox:
Well, you weren’t assigned a plane. They had a group of planes, and the ground maintenance people would keep those planes all — and you were — you flew a number of different planes, all B-17Gs, but you flew different planes on the missions.

Thomas J. Healy II:
So did you get to name your plane?

Andrew Knox:
No, because you fly a different plane every mission.

Thomas J. Healy II:
How did the guys name the plane? I mean, is it different bomb groups and different groups had their own —

Andrew Knox:
Well, yeah. I guess I never really understood how they were assigned. I think probably it was — maybe there was a shortage of planes, and they had to have each one for a specific crew. But we had extra planes by the time — See, I got in, really, because of my age and when I went in, I got in really on the tail end of the war. I had plenty of chance to fly combat missions, but we had mastery — the U.S. had mastery of the skies. And we had plenty of flight crews and plenty of airplanes. The United States made tremendous sacrifices and really built a very, very strong Air Force.

Thomas J. Healy II:
How did — Did you have fighters attached to you?

Andrew Knox:
Well, we had fighters in the distance, yeah. We didn’t have — By the time I got into the war, the Germans, the air — the U.S. had superiority. And the Germans wouldn’t send or they’d have fighter pilots’ planes at a distance from us. But they didn’t engage our fighters because they were badly outnumbered. But we saw them, and we had the P-38 Lightnings primarily were escorts for us. So the fighters were involved, but they weren’t involved too much in the active shooting.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Was it an allied group, or was it just the U.S. that were fighters?

Andrew Knox:
It was all U.S. that was involved. But of the fields in Italy there in Foggia, the British flew at night, and we flew in the daytime. The British believed in nighttime bombing and flew at a lower altitude. We believed in precision bombing from 30,000 feet. I say we, the United States Air Force. And they believed in flying at a higher altitude and with a Norden bombsight doing that. But the British were there, and there were just as many British planes as — Well, I’m not sure on this. There were a lot of British planes.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did — What did you guys do for rest and relaxation over there?

Andrew Knox:
Well, one reason why it was nice to be in the Air Force is after you flew your mission, you came back, and you got a hot meal, and you had a tent, and a warm tent, and a sleeping bag to sleep in versus the infantry, who were in muddy, wet foxholes and that. I primarily joined the Air Force because it was glamorous at the time, and also I wanted to learn a skill. I thought, well, if I’ve got to do this, I might as well learn a skill. But the story was funny. We had exchanges with infantry officers would fly with — on our missions, and Air Force would be with the infantry. And neither liked the other’s jobs. And the infantry people didn’t like it because they knew that you were going to be over the target at 12:30 in the middle of the day, and you were going to get shot at. And you knew — And the Air Force didn’t like that you could be in any time during the day, a shell might be laying on you. You could be in the latrine, or you could be eating your food or whatever. So it was interesting. Mentally you got acclimated to what your environment was.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Now, did you have — What — Was there a town there?

Andrew Knox:
Yeah, there was a little town there. And it was kind of peasants around there. But the USO had a — and the Red Cross had places there. So we could go into town and enjoy those facilities. And then after the war officially ended, I was still over there for six months in the Army of Occupation, and we didn’t — we flew — ferried people around and did odd jobs like that. And — But other times, it was the summertime, and the Adriatic was only about ten miles away. So we’d hitchhike a ride over there and spend the day on the beach. It was — That was a nice part of it. And then part of the ferrying, I got up to Munich and saw — went through Dachau, the concentration camp. And the guide that showed us through was a Polish fellow, and he had been a prisoner, and he had lost a tremendous amount of weight in the concentration camp. But this was about four or five months after he was liberated, and he was back healthy again. But we did see Dachau.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did you — So when you got out, you got out in December or January —

Andrew Knox:
Let’s see. I got officially in around November, October, November.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. And then you came back. Tell me the story when you came back and —

Andrew Knox:
Well, I came back, and for the first few months, college hadn’t started. But as soon as I could, I got back to college, and we were on an accelerated schedule, three semesters in just the one calendar year. So I was originally the Class of 1945.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Williams?

Andrew Knox:
At Williams. And then I graduated from Williams in 1947. So even though I’d been in the service three years, on a calendar basis, because of the acceleration, I was only two years behind or whatever.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did you stay flying?

Andrew Knox:
No. I stayed in the Reserve, but it was very — I was in northwest Massachusetts, and I would have had to devote a whole day to — I had to fly four hours a month. And, one, it was tough transportation, but, more important, I was majoring in science when I went back. I went back — I’d finished two years before. Then I went back, and I started my junior year, and I was majoring in physical chemistry. And I had a chemistry course with a lab, an analytical course with a lab — organic course with a lab, and an advanced physics electromagnetism with lab. So I had all I could handle, and I was a little rusty, having been in the service away from the academics for three years. So I really didn’t have time to stay in flying. So I resigned from the Reserve.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Then you got out of the service — I mean, you got of college, and you met your wife. Where did you meet your wife? And tell me about your wife and family and then what you did after college and things.

Andrew Knox:
Well, I met my wife my last year in college in the summer of 1946. She was at Bennington College, which was the female college about 15 miles north of Williams. So we had a lot of interaction between that. And she — And then I got married. We got married. And then I went to Penn to graduate work, and I was three years there, and she was — We were married the three years, and she had a part-time job. I had the GI Bill of Rights, which was just one of the most wonderful things ever done for young people. I mean, all the people that got good educations that I would have gotten it anyhow, but it was a big help for me, being married and back in school.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Then you moved to — Then you got out of school, and you came with DuPont?

Andrew Knox:
Yes.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Can you tell me about that.

Andrew Knox:
I was a chemist at the — at the experimental station in nylon research, and that was a nice time to be in nylon research because it was the top of the heap. It was one of the key places to be in the DuPont company. And we used to laugh, and we would have a project. And it wasn’t a question of whether you’d make money. It was a question of how much you’d make. So — And then I was there for nine years. And then I was transferred Seaford, the Seaford nylon plant. And then I was transferred back to textile research, ___ research. So I took early retirement primarily to go into the state senate, which I was already in, and I was — I served — I was employed 27 years with DuPont.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Then you — How long have you been out of the senate? I forget.

Andrew Knox:
I’ve been — about eight years.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did you just — Did you get out, or did you lose that time?

Andrew Knox:
Oh, no. I quit while I was ahead. I got into politics — DuPont had a policy then that you could take 20 percent of your time to serve in the General Assembly. So I started out as still a full-time DuPont employee. You couldn’t raise a family and send kids to college on a legislator’s salary. And so I — And so I worked in the DuPont 80 percent of the time, and then I was a state representative for two terms. And then I took Rand DuPont’s place in the state senate and was there for 20 years.

Thomas J. Healy II:
That was a nice run. What was the hardest part of your time in the service?

Andrew Knox:
I think basic training. The Army wasn’t too smart. I mean, we were down in Atlantic City, and — which sounds great, but it was — it was February and March. And they just physically ran you into the ground. I was — I had been playing college basketball, so I was in good shape. And you couldn’t go on sick call unless you had a 100-degree temperature or more. And they ran me down enough that I got spinal meningitis and darn near died. I came closer to dying in basic training than I ever did in being shot at later.

Thomas J. Healy II:
In your — Since World War II in your readings, which you probably kept up on history and the books and stuff, what do you think they’ve left out? Have they left anything out about World War II that, I mean, the books they’ve written and the history that you’ve read?

Andrew Knox:
Well, I can’t think of anything major that they have left out. The thing that impressed me a lot and maybe hadn’t been — how popular support for the World War II was. I mean, everything was — I mean, you were — you were a vet — You were in the service, and people wanted to be in the service. And I had friends that couldn’t pass the physical, and they tried to get in on limited service. I mean, people just really supported — and the civilian support, it was just outstanding. So it was —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did it dwindle any by the time Korea came around, or was it pretty much everybody was still pumped up from World War II?

Andrew Knox:
Well, I think it might have dwindled in the sense that the Korea — the people, the general public, and people that had served in World War II like me — I don’t know how to put this — didn’t think Korea was as big a deal certainly as World War II. I mean, World War II was all around the world. And this was between North and South Korea, and then the Chinese got in a little bit. But, you know, there was some apprehension that it might grow into a much bigger war. But people just didn’t really feel that that was going — that that was going to happen.

Thomas J. Healy II:
And then of course Vietnam that — nobody really knew what the hell was going on there at all.

Andrew Knox:
Yeah.

Thomas J. Healy II:
I had gone in myself. I had — I was in the Navy, Navy Air, and I, like yourself, I wanted to go anyway, so I had already joined up early on. And, I mean, I wanted to be in, but — And I think the kids today, I think the kids that are over in Iraq today, which is all volunteer, which that’s not being told a lot — I mean, it’s like you think that there’s this, you know, we’re tying them up and sending them over. These kids really want to go, I mean, really want to be part of the service. Is that — I mean, what’s your —

Andrew Knox:
I’m impressed with the morale of the soldiers. And some of the lack of support they’re getting from people in this country I think is outrageous. I think we’ve got to support our — I mean, they give lip — a lot of people give lip service to it, but they don’t think — they don’t have that great respect that they had for us in World War II. And I think — I think we need to support the people more. And there’s always the political argument about the mistakes that have been made and all that. I mean, Franklin D. Roosevelt, I mean, you know, there’s all this talk that they should have anticipated, and they had the information that they should have known about Pearl Harbor and all that. But people didn’t dwell on that. They say we’ve got a job to do; let’s go do it.

Thomas J. Healy II:
And I think that’s what’s happened now too. I mean, I’ve seen the guys that I’ve been around now, I mean, there wasn’t that — back when I was growing up toward Vietnam, and people knew that I was in the Reserve. It was, like, they’d look at you like you had three heads. Are you crazy? And everybody was trying to go to Canada or trying to be a better student in school so they didn’t have to go. And I didn’t really care. I had that I really wanted to be in, and it wasn’t I wasn’t scared, but I wanted to pick my destiny, too, just like you said. I wanted — That’s why I joined the Navy and Navy Air. I wanted to — I know what I can do. And I think that’s what a lot of these guys that are in now, these kids that are in now, and — I don’t know. I just — I just feel — I think it’s not as bad as Vietnam now because you’ve got more of the American public, I think, for, just because of 9-11. I mean, I think that really brought the country together, more so than Vietnam. At least there was something that brought it together. And I think the news media — Tell me about the news media. Don’t you think they have a lot to play with it? I mean, they can make it sound however they want to make it sound.

Andrew Knox:
Well, I think, like, the New York Times and the News Journal, Gannett is pretty liberal. The New York Times is outrageous. They weigh everything negative about it, the conduct of the war and that, and all the problems you — I mean, war’s not pleasant. And in order to get support, I think the media is just, is just outrageous, whereas in World War II, of course they didn’t have the coverage. They couldn’t get in there and have the coverage that they had here. But the media supported in World War II. And now I just think it’s — I think it’s wrong the way they don’t support and are so critical of all the things. I mean, nobody’s perfect, and war is unpleasant.

Thomas J. Healy II:
The — Here’s the other — What do you want generations to come to know and remember about World War II?

Andrew Knox:
The way the country — I want generations to come to remember — I think Brokaw’s book really hit it, The Greatest Generation. But I want them to remember that the support that the general public and everybody gave to our armed forces during World War II and how this country rallied and did this tremendous job, built all these factories that gave the soldiers and other military people the wherewithal to fight the battle, and rationing, and gave up a lot of things and that. It was just wonderful the way that — and I want people to remember that.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Now, could you imagine rationing right now today?

Andrew Knox:
I don’t think so, no. It’s hard. No.

Thomas J. Healy II:
I mean, we had enough trouble with the fuel before. I mean, can you imagine the food and the lifestyles?

Andrew Knox:
And tires and — yeah, all that, yeah. I can’t.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Let’s see. Did I leave anything out?

Andrew Knox:
Well, I had one funny story that happened to me in combat.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay.

Andrew Knox:
We were flying a mission, and there was a very strong tailwind. Our air speed was only 150 miles an hour, and at 30,000 feet, you add 50 percent on that, so it’s 200 or so. But there was a real strong tailwind, and we went over the target at around 500 miles an hour, which for, you know, in today, with jets and any of that, it’s nothing. And the colonel was leading our group that day, and they went over — his bombardier didn’t get — didn’t get sighted on it. So it came over, the colonel said, “Well, gentlemen, we’re going to have to make a big U-turn and come back over the target again.” And there was a voice came over and says, “Boy, somebody has really got things fouled up today. What’s going on?” And then the colonel said, “Would the person who said that please identify themselves.” And the person said, “I’m not that fouled up.”

Thomas J. Healy II:
Let’s see. Anything else?

Andrew Knox:
Well, I just say, in general, I’d say I’m proud to be a veteran, and I’m proud of the fact that I served in World War II, and in similar circumstances I’d do it again. DEOGRAPHER: Maybe we show his pictures —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Let me see what else they came up with. Pasquale was actually over in Iraq for the first six months.

Andrew Knox:
Who was?

Thomas J. Healy II:
He was, Pasquale was.

Videographer:
I was.

Andrew Knox:
Oh, you were?

Videographer:
Yes.

Thomas J. Healy II:
As a cameraman.

Andrew Knox:
Oh, boy.

Thomas J. Healy II:
He can tell you some stories. How do you want to do this, Pasquale?

Videographer:
I just envisioned if he would hold it just like this and say, like, well, that’s me here, and that’s after I went into the service, and that’s my group. And I can film you holding that. Maybe we can do it, maybe, yeah. That looks good.

Andrew Knox:
It’s hard for me —

Videographer:
Yeah, you can — you can — Yeah, just like this. Perfect.

Andrew Knox:
Okay. Here, this is — all these are pictures of Andy Knox. And here I was as a baby, when I graduated from prep school, Episcopal Academy, when I got my wings. And this is the crew, our B-17 bomber crew, taken just before we went overseas.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Now, explain, like —

Videographer:
Can he just sit here, because he’s —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Can you get — Can you — Do you know the guys that are in there?

Andrew Knox:
Oh, gosh, I don’t remember.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Well, I mean, but some of — How old were you? Say I was 21 or whatever.

Videographer:
Sir, could you be so nice and just do the same thing with your hand. I’m just a close-up just of the pictures. If you can just go to the baby, you as a young man, as a pilot, and with the —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Start at the baby. Point at the baby.

Andrew Knox:
Okay. Do it again? Do you want me to speak?

Videographer:
Yes, point. ___+

Andrew Knox:
This is me as a baby. This is when I graduated from high school. This is when I got my wings. I was 21 years old. And this is the picture of my crew before we went overseas, and there were members here from Kentucky, South Dakota, the Pennsylvania coal mines. One had worked in a carnival. Quite a diversified group of people.

Videographer:
And if you would just point one more time at the group of young men with you.

Andrew Knox:
Do you want me to say anything?

Videographer:
Yes, please.

Andrew Knox:
This is my crew. It was taken as a group before we went overseas. And they were from all over the country, South Dakota, Kentucky, the coal mines of Pennsylvania. And one was a carnival barker, I mean, a very unique and diversified group.

Videographer:
Okay. And I just take pictures of you now. ___+

Thomas J. Healy II:
What do you want to do now? Do you want to do the side one? Tell me what you want to do.

Videographer:
No. That’s great.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Right there? That’s perfect.

Videographer:
But just please look at —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Look at me.

Videographer:
Either at TJ or —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Look at me. That’s fine. We’re just going to be quiet here.

Videographer:
Just sit still. It’s wonderful. I just try to do some variations.

Thomas J. Healy II:
You’re doing good.

Andrew Knox:
Well, the important thing is I’m here to talk about it.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Did you get that?

Videographer:
Yeah. That’s very good. Excellent, sir.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay.

Andrew Knox:
Okay.

Videographer:
Don’t get up yet because the microphone is right above you.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Do you want me to move that? Are you going to — So we went down, and Bill’s got a bunch of interesting memorabilia, war memorabilia, drawings of I think — Was it the B-17s he was in? I think so.

Videographer:
I’m not really sure. I don’t —

Thomas J. Healy II:
I think it was maybe B-17s or whatever he was in. So he has a lot of nice background stuff behind him. But it takes away from you. You guys are the story. I mean, in a movie, you guys are the script. There’s nothing — So it just — This light that we have now, I mean, the way it’s lit, it looks really, really good. So tell me the story about the —

Andrew Knox:
Well, I have an interesting story. After I was out of the service, I still was on leave, but I was back home waiting for college to start. And I was playing basketball one day and broke my foot. And some of the people said, you know, you’re still on leave, you’re still officially a member of the army, so you could go out to Valley Forge, and they’ll take care of your foot. So I did. And but I had to put on my uniform, and I had a walker and crutches. And my mother had said, well, would you stop in the drug store and pick up something for me on your way home. And I said sure. So I went in there, and I got out of the car and went to the door in the drug store. And people were opening the door and said, oh, this veteran, this — and I had ribbons across here, you know, this wounded guy and all his medals recognizing his wonderful service and all that. And I had busted my foot playing basketball.

Thomas J. Healy II:
That’s great. Did they give you free drugs?

Andrew Knox:
Oh, well, they put a cast on it.

Thomas J. Healy II:
No. I mean, did they, when — the stuff you picked up at the drug store, did the druggist give you your stuff?

Andrew Knox:
Oh, no, no, no. I wouldn’t expect that, because, you know, I had been through rationing where you pay — they paid for everything and all that. I mean, people didn’t expect to get it for — I mean — And I wasn’t much of a drin — but people would buy you drinks at a bar and all that. But all the other people my age group went in the service. I mean, it wasn’t unusual to have a veteran come in and all.

Thomas J. Healy II:
What’s different? Why are the kids — I’m a lot because I’m closer to you than of course my kids or even my younger brothers and sisters that are different. What happened? What happened between you guys and not particularly me, me, the next generation, but the following generation?

Andrew Knox:
You know, I’ve given that some thought, and I just really — I honestly don’t know. It surprises me, because 9-11 was certainly as drastic as Pearl Harbor. But I, you know, we were — We were a lot more naive that way about — We didn’t know much about international and that sort of thing. And we didn’t know about the relations between different countries, and we didn’t have the UN, which was not supporting the U.S. and that. But it’s a complicated question, and I just don’t really — I don’t really know. I could understand in Vietnam because they thought it was a wrong war. I really — I mean, my philosophy is I support our leadership, right or wrong. And people don’t feel that way, I don’t think, as much now.

Thomas J. Healy II:
One of the vets said yesterday, which is interesting, is since your mother and father and their mother and father, you know, you always want to have your kids better. And because of the war and because of everything happening to you guys at a very young age, I mean, you guys were young young when this stuff happened, and some of the 17-year-olds and 18-year-olds were there. And I think — Do you think they got bound and determined that this isn’t going to happen to our kids, and what you got as a kid versus what you gave your kids, I know, is a lot different. I mean, my father — I mean, do you think we’re giving our kids too much, too much freedom, too much —

Andrew Knox:
Well —

Thomas J. Healy II:
Oops, sorry.

Andrew Knox:
— that could be a factor. I mean, I was — my mother was a widow and left with very few resources, and it was during the Depression. So it was — it was tough. But she set high standards and got a roof over our heads and clothes and food and that. So — But I think it’s our technical skill and technology that’s really a lot of these things are benefits. So it’s hard to say. I mean, we didn’t have to make the decision in World War II whether — The parents didn’t have — They just didn’t have the resources to allocate. I mean, sure, there were some well off, what you’d call rich, rich families. But even their living standard, I mean, you know, spring vacation at school and all that, people just didn’t go to Florida and the Caribbean. Of course jets had a big thing to do with it. But there just wasn’t as much available in that, so — But I don’t — I really don’t know why. I guess a lot of it — I think the academic institutions are very liberal, and I think they have kind of turned off this — the — that the leadership is to be supported, right or wrong. They would never have that kind of an attitude. And when I went to college, there certainly wasn’t that attitude among the faculty.

Thomas J. Healy II:
Okay. Thank you.

Andrew Knox:
Okay. Thank you, guys.

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